When the definition of a car is asked then, in general, the IC engine, clutch, transmission gearbox, conventional differential, fuel tank so on are pictured. Everyone loves the roaring of the engine, to boost the machine through accelerating pedal, to cut down the power to the wheel with the clutch plate and also to cool down the torque by shifting the gearbox lever. But we all know that the food for the IC engine i.e. gasoline, diesel, and other biofuels are a limited resources for our future transportation sector.So Electric Car:-
Nowadays there are many reliable resources which are employed to produce the alternative power. Some of them have already developed and some are underdeveloped. But in future, these resources will become our main power sources. And it is always easy to develop electric power as the output power of these alternative sources. So In future for adjusting the transportation sector against the shortage of conventional fuels. It is wise to manufacture the e-vehicles and develop their performance to satisfy the future demands.
EVs are an emerging technology that is becoming more and more prevalent in automotive.An electric vehicle is not just a Nissan Leaf and Tesla. The electric vehicle comprises several different technologies. We are talking about any electrified vehicle. So an electric vehicle could be a Toyota Prius, it could be a Ford Fusion energy plug-in, it could be a Nissan Leaf fully a battery electric car or it could be a fuel cell electric or it could be a natural gas generated electric car.
There are several different ways you can configure an electric car, but the underlying base technology is always same that’s what we want to talk about.An electric vehicle has three basic components .it will have an energy storage unit, control unit, and a propulsion unit. Knowing what the basic components are one thing but knowing how they fit inside of an electric car is different. So let’s learn about the basic components of an electric car.
THESE ARE THE COMPONENTS OF AN ELECTRIC CAR:-
@ENERGY STORAGE UNIT
For an electric car, the source of power is battery or a no of fuel cells. Battery types include lead-acid batteries and nickel metal hydride are heavier and less efficient as their power to weight ratio is low. But the variants of lithium-ion batteries such as lithium iron phosphate and lithium titanate have the greater power ratio and also solve the durability issues of traditional batteries.So most current electric vehicle designs focus on lithium-ion cells as their primary power source.
The main part of propulsion unit is an induction motor or a no of electric motors. This powerhouse of the vehicle takes three-phase AC supply in input and motor can rotate between 0 to 18000 rpm by providing a high power. So it is robust and powerful. The beauty of an induction motor is that its speed depends on the frequency of the AC power supply. So just by varying the frequency of the power supply, we will be able to alter the drive wheel speed. This makes speed control easy and reliable, it also replaces the huge transmission system of an IC engine. In case of the motor, we get the rotational motion directly and also uniform power output so there are fewer power losses in producing the desired rotational motion unlike the frictional losses in the piston, connecting rods, valves etc. of an IC engine.
Control unit of an electric vehicle consists of Converter and other related sensors. As the energy unit supplies DC power, the inverter converts it into AC power and feed it to the induction motor. This power electronic device also controls the AC power frequency for controlling the motor speed. Thus the inverter acts as the brain of the electric car.
Except for these primary components, there are many secondary components.They are given below.
There is a cooling system in which the coolant extracts heat from the battery and reject it to the surrounding through a radiator.
The Transmission Part
As the motor is efficient in a wide range of operating conditions and it can vary its output speed. It does this by varying the input frequency so there is no need for a heavy drivetrain. Instead of it all most all EVs have 2-speed automatic transmission for forward and reverse motion. And also it is easier to achieve reversed motion in an electric car, just change the power phase for this. And some vehicles also have a manual transmission.
Most of the EVs use simple open differential. Open differential is more rugged and can carry more torque. And the traction problem of the wheels in this differential is solved by cutting the power supply to the induction motor which not much responsive in IC engine. It can be done with the help of sensors and controllers.
The New Technologies in it.
@REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEM
Did you know an electric car could be driven efficiently with the help of just one pedal? This is due to its powerful regenerative braking system. That means saving the huge kinetic energy of the car in the form of electricity without wasting it as heat. In the electric car, as soon as you release the accelerator pedal the regenerative braking comes into action. The interesting thing is that during this wheel drives the motor and motor acts as generator. Generated electric energy is stored in the battery pack. Thus the car will slow down. This way vehicle speed can be accurately controlled during the drive using a single pedal.
@INSTANT BRAKING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEM
These two systems are similar to the normal braking and suspension system of engine car. For instant breaking the hydraulic braking system is applied through the brake pedal. And the suspension system is chosen according to the application of the vehicle.
The charging of the battery pack is done by the external supply via charging plug.
Batteries in EVs must be periodically recharged from the power grid overnight at home. So the car owner must have a charging station in his garage.
So this is the complete description about the basic components of an electric car. Currently, there are no of the manufacturer of EVs.
LIST OF ELECTRIC CAR MODELS:-
The Mitsubishi i-MiEV, Nissan Leaf, Ford Focus Electric, Tesla Model S, BMW ActiveE, Coda, Renault Fluence Z.E., Honda Fit EV, Toyota RAV4 EV, Renault Zoe, Roewe E50, Mahindra e2o, Chevrolet Spark EV, Fiat 500e, Volkswagen e-Up!, BMW i3, BMW Brilliance Zinoro 1E, Kia Soul EV, Volkswagen e-Golf, Mercedes-Benz B-Class Electric Drive, Venucia e30, BAIC E150 EV, Denza EV, Zotye Zhidou E20, BYD e5, Tesla Model X, Detroit Electric SP.01, BYD Qin EV300, Hyundai Ioniq Electric and Chevrolet Bolt EV are some top electric car now a days.
This article is the first article of E-ARTICLE. The next article of this series is the WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN An IC ENGINE CAR AND AN ELECTRIC CAR.
References – wikipedia ,auto.howstuffworks.com